# GATE | Syllabus for Physics (PH)

**Mathematical Physics: **Linear vector space; matrices; vector calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complex analysis; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis, elementary ideas about tensors.

**Classical Mechanics: **Conservation laws; central forces, Kepler problem and planetary motion; collisions and scattering in laboratory and centre of mass frames; mechanics of system of particles; rigid body dynamics; moment of inertia tensor; noninertial frames and pseudo forces; variational principle; Lagrange’s and Hamilton’s formalisms; equation of motion, cyclic coordinates, Poisson bracket; periodic motion, small oscillations, normal modes; special theory of relativity – Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass-energy equivalence.

**Electromagnetic Theory: **Solution of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems includingboundary value problems;dielectrics andconductors; Biot-Savart’s and Ampere’s laws; Faraday’s law; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization. Poynting vector, Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation from a moving charge.

**Quantum Mechanics: **Physical basis of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; one, two and three dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom; linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory.

**Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics: **Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; probability ensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; first and second order phase transitions, critical point.

**Atomic and Molecular Physics: **Spectra of one- and many-electron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure; Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; X-ray spectra; rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic molecules, Franck-Condon principle; Raman effect; NMR and ESR; lasers.

**Solid State Physics: **Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids; elastic properties of solids; defects in crystals; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids; metals, semiconductors and insulators; transport properties; optical, dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity.

**Nuclear and Particle Physics: **Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and magnetic moments; nuclear models, liquid drop model – semi-empirical mass formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleon problem; Alpha decay, Beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei;Rutherford scattering,nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion;particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons, baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model.

**Electronics: **Network analysis; semiconductor devices; Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors, amplifier and oscillator circuits; operational amplifier, negative feedback circuits ,**active filters and oscillators**; rectifier circuits, regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.