# GATE | Syllabus for Aerospace Engineering (AE)

**ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigen values and eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals. Theorems of Stokes, Gauss and Green.

**Differential Equations:** First order linear and nonlinear equations, higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy and Euler equations, initial and boundary value problems,Laplace transforms. Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods.

**Numerical methods:** Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, integration by trapezoidal and Simpson rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**FLIGHT MECHANICS**

**Atmosphere:** Properties, standard atmosphere. Classification of aircraft.Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts.

**Airplane performance:** Pressure altitude; equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds; Primary flight instruments: Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turn-bank indicator. Drag polar; take off and landing; steady climb & descent,-absolute and service ceiling; cruise, cruise climb, endurance or loiter; load factor, turning flight, V-n diagram; Winds: head, tail & cross winds.

**Static stability:** Angle of attack, sideslip; roll, pitch & yaw controls; longitudinal stick fixed & free stability, horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tail position and size; dihedral stability. Wing dihedral, sweep & position; hinge moments, stick forces.

**Dynamic stability:** Euler angles; Equations of motion; aerodynamic forces and moments, stability & control derivatives; decoupling of longitudinal and lat-directional dynamics; longitudinal modes; lateral-directional modes.

### SPACE DYNAMICS

Central force motion, determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases. Orbit transfer, in-plane and out-of-plane. Elements of rocket motor performance.

### AERODYNAMICS

**Basic Fluid Mechanics:** Incompressible irrotational flow, Helmholtz and Kelvin theorem, singularities and superposition, viscous flows, boundary layer on a flat plate.

**Airfoils and wings:** Classification of airfoils, aerodynamic characteristics, high lift devices, Kutta Joukowski theorem; lift generation; thin airfoil theory; wing theory; induced drag; qualitative treatment of low aspect ratio wings.

**Viscous Flows:** Flow separation, introduction to turbulence, transition, structure of a turbulent boundary layer.

**Compressible Flows:** Dynamics and Thermodynamics of I-D flow, isentropic flow, normal shock, oblique shock, Prandtl-Meyer flow, flow in nozzles and diffusers, inviscid flow in a c-d nozzle, flow in diffusers. subsonic and supersonic airfoils, compressibility effects on lift and drag, critical and drag divergence Mach number, wave drag.

**Wind Tunnel Testing:** Measurement and visualisation techniques.

### STRUCTURES

**Stress and Strain:** Equations of equilibrium, constitutive law, strain-displacement relationship, compatibility equations, plane stress and strain, Airy’s stress function.

**Flight Vehicle Structures:** Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials, torsion, bending and flexural shear. Flexural shear flow in thin-walled sections. Buckling. Failure theories. Loads on aircraft.

**Structural Dynamics:** Free and forced vibration of discrete systems. Damping and resonance. Dynamics of continuous systems.

### PROPULSION

Thermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine engines, thrust and thrust augmentation.

**Turbomachinery:** Axial compressors and turbines, centrifugal pumps and compressors.

**Aerothermodynamics of non rotating propulsion components:** Intakes, combustor and nozzle. Thermodynamics of ramjets and scramjets. Elements of rocket propulsion.